Idaho OnePlan recommends the website of the
Idaho Weed Awareness
Campaign as the best resource for up-to-date information about
Idaho's noxious weeds, and their control.
Source for this page: Idaho's Noxious Weeds by Robert H. Callihan & Timothy W. Miller
Milium (Milium vernale) is a native of southern Europe and western Asia first observed in North America in 1987. It has been found in winter wheat and pastures, as well as areas near those fields. Milium spreads exclusively by seed. It has been a serious problem in winter wheat in Europe, and is a threat in Idaho.
Milium is a winter annualPlant that germinates, flowers, seeds, and dies during one growing season grass that grows up to 2½ feet tall. Leaves are up to ¼ inch wide and 4 inches long, with veins and marginsmargin: edge of the leaf appearing roughened. Stems of plants in dense stands are weak and spindly, requiring adjacent vegetation to hold them upright. LigulesThe structure at the collar of a grass leaf between the sheath and the stem are ¼ inch long and membranousThin and flexible, usually not green; auriclesLobelike structure at the collar of a grass leaf are lacking. PaniclesA much branched inflorescence are open and up to 8 inches long, approximately 25 percent of the plant's mature height. SpikeletsA single or group of floral structures in a grass are solitary on the tip of each panicle branch, 1/8 inch long, awnlessWithout a slender bristle at the tip of grass seed structure, and contain a single hard, shiny seed. Seed heads appear in May, and seeds mature in June. The glumesThe 2 bracts surrounding a grass spikelet (chaffy bracts that surround the seed) remain attached to the plant after the seeds fall.
Milium is widespread in Eurasia; in North America, it has been reported only in the indicated Idaho counties.
Spring tillage appears to control milium. Herbicides are available, but there are no biological control agents.